3 PRT 1 SOCILIZING.



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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION                                                                              - 3                                                                   

PART  1              SOCIALIZING                                                       - 4  

Part   2               JOBS  AND  RESPONSIBILITIES                         -8

Part  3               SPEECH  PRACTICE                                            -12

Part  4               BUSINESS  STRUCTURE                                    - 13

Part  5               DEVELOPING  SKILLS                                      - 20 

Part  6               GRAMMAR  SECTION                                        - 23

SUPPLEMENTARY


I N T R O D U C T I O N

The edition promotes you with the possibility to master your Business  English  skills  independently.  The Vocabulary, Grammar, Functions, Reading and Writing exercises and VIDEO  are presented here  in the corresponding sections and in the electronics version.

You will find it easier to do the Developing Skills section after you have done the Grammar and Speech Practice ones.

You should decide which  of the exercises to do  and which will  be  the most useful  and interesting for you, bearing in mind  what you  have done in class for each unit.

If necessary, ask your teacher for advice.

GOOD       LUCK !


Part 1.  Socializing

G R E E T I N G S

  •  How do you \do? (highly formal)*

  •  Good \ morning! (ratherformal)}
  •  \ Morning!   (less formal]

- used from early morning till 12.00p.m

  •  Good after \ noon! (formal)}
  •  After \ noon! (less formal)

- used from 12.00p.m. till 06.00 p.m.

  •  Good \evening! (formal)}
  •  \ Evening! (lessformal)

- used after 06.00. p.m.

Hal \lo! [Hello, hullo]!

- rather informal, can be used any time of the day and often followed by a person's name and such 

e

expressions as   "Haven't seen you for ages! " or "It's good to see you again/" and "How are you?" !

\Hi! (coll.)

used in   outwork situations.

Commentary

*   'How do you \ do?'   is usually used while getting acquainted with other business people but not customary among people   meeting every day. It's a general way of greeting people and requires the same phrase in reply corresponding to the Russian forms «Здравствуйте!» - «Здравствуйте!».

But it is also often   understood as "How are you getting \ on?" Как дела?»). And there comes the reply:    " \ Fine! \ Thanks!    / And you?"

ILLUSTRATIVE  DIALOGUES:

1.

- "How do you do, Mr. Smith? I am Frank Newman of Green Star LTD."

-"How do you do, Mr. Newman?"

2.

- "Morning, David! This is Edward Scott, our new sales representative."

-"Oh, yes, Edward! Welcome to JCK Advertising! How do you do?"

-"How do you do? Pleased to meet you."

3.

-"Oh, hullo, Pete! How are you?"

-"Hi, Bob! I am OK. Haven't seen you for ages!"

SMALL TALK

Small Talk     -    is a traditional beginning of any business contact.   Before moving to the subject of the meeting, you should arrange a short conversation to build a bridge to mutual understanding. It's also called "socializing". It presents an exchange of some polite questions and answers, such as asking of one's affairs, flight or trip, if any, weather, hotel and replies to them. Usually, both the speaker and his companion is aware of the perspective reply to the question asked. Don't give detailed information! It's just Etiquette common in business communication. Phrases of "Welcoming" are preferable to compose a friendly atmosphere that promotes fruitful negotiating.

NOTE: But not any questions are possible to ask. Keep in mind that it's better not to ask too personal questions at a first meeting. And never ask about money!

ILLUSTRATIVE   SMALL  TALK

N.: - Good morning, Mr. Smith! How are you?

S.: - I'm fine, thank you. And how are you getting on with your business?

N: - It's OK, thanks. Did you have a good trip?

S: - Excellent! The weather is pleasant today, isn't it?

N: - Yes. Good weather, good business.

S: - Absolutely!

N: - Would you like a cup of coffee?

S: -     Thanks. Let's get down to business now, if you don't mind?

N: - All right. Business before pleasure.

S: -    The British say: "Time and tide wait for no man."

N: -      I see.


I N T R O D U C I N G   P E O P L E

Who are you? -   the question is "What's your name?" and requires some information about the partner's fist name and family name. But you can initiate the procedure of introducing by yourself saying:

"We haven't met before, have we?" or "Excuse me, have we met before? or "I don't think we've met, have we?" and get the answer: 'No, we haven't".

In reply : - Let me intro\ duce myself, my name's Edward \ Green.

May I intro \ duce myself ?"

Allow me to intro \ duce myself, I am Dr. Henry\Bendrix.
These forms are rather forma and, used in business situations.

Sometimes you need to introduce a stranger to other people. So you may say:

Have you met / Mr.Harvey?

or

I'd like you to meet Doctor \ Stanley.

\Ms. Leeds,  this is \Mr. Snow. - Unpretentious and yet formal enough for any occasion.

NOTE: When introducing oneself the one addressed to is expected to say his name. Then follows the exchange of the phrases: - "How do you do?"

- "How do you do?"  from both being acquainted.

In reply : - My \ pleasure.

It's nice \ meeting you

Pleased to \ meet you.

Glad to \ meet you.

Only to the previous two phrases your counterpart can react saying:

- "Me \ too."

The other possible replies may be:

- "The pleasure is \ mine /actually."

- "Nice to meet you \ too."

The replies mentioned above are rather formal. But in less official situations it's possible to say:

-"Hal /lo!"

or to give a usual answer

- "How d'you do?"


Examples

Good morning! Excuse me, have we met before?

Oh, I'm afraid, not! My name's John Brown. Pleased to meet you.

The pleasure is mine. And I am Robert Bean.

What are you? - the question   is "What do you do?" or "What's your job?" The speaker is

interested in a

person's job and responsibilities. Usually the answer provides some information about the legal name of the company, its activity and the position of the person in the group. It's customary accompanied by another question: "Where are you from?" and followed by an answer: "I'm  from Bybery Systems." or "I'm  from Orenburg", or "I'm from Russia."

In reply:

  •  I represent the THT Company. I work for* Transgas LTD. (or "I work with Transgas LTD)
  •  I work in the office.
  •  I work at the Research and Development department. I work in sales.
  •  We are based in New York but have offices worldwide. We are active in gas transmitting.
  •  We do business with many Asian and European countries.**
  •  We engage a first class reputation.

NOTES: * the verb "to work" can be followed by different prepositions as it is shown in

the above sentences.

** the construction "to be based in..."varies in meaning depending on the subject 1. "We are based in..." means that the head office of the firm is located in some city or town and may have some branches or subsidiaries. 2. "I am based in Paris" means that the person is on the staff of a branch office or the head office but travels a lot.

ILLUSTRATIVE   DIALOGUES

1. - Excuse me, are you Mr. Briggs?

Yeah!

Hello! I am Mark Whites from JCK Co.

Hi! Nice to meet you!

And you. I am here to take you to the hotel.

Thank you.

2. - Hello! I am Robert Carlson. I don't think we've met, have we?

No. Glad to meet you. My name's Percy Alexander.

What are you, Mr. Alexander?

I represent Prodata Ltd. We are based in Geneva.

So you are not from Brighton then?

No. I am here temporarily.

I see.

3. -   Good afternoon! Let me introduce myself. I am Carol Streep.

How do you do, Ms. Streep.

I am fine. But call me just Carol.

OK , Carol. And I'm Bob, Bob Russel.

Where are you from, Bob?

I work for the Agrico Denmark. And what about you? What's your job?

I am a Sales Manager with Pepsico.

Really? That's interesting!

Part  2.  JOBS and RESPONSIBILITIES

Job Titles:

President (Am.)

Chief Executive (Am.)  - the top level of management

Managing Director Chairman of the Board

Directors of the departments: Sales Director

Marketing Director

Finance Director - the middle level management

Personnel Director

R and D (Research and Development) Director

Production Director
Managers of the departments: Production Manager -
the low level management

Sales Manager etc.
Other personnel: Marketing Executive

Finance Assistant

R @ D Engineer

Personal Assistant (PA)

Receptionist

Sales Representatives or reps

Customer Services Assistant etc. Job Responsibilities:

-to be responsible for the overall performance of the group

-to be the head of the organization

-to manage the company - the top level of management

-to be on the top

-to run the corporation

-to control all aspects of finance

-to run a division

-to head a department

-to be responsible for strategic planning and making decisions     - the middle level management

-to be in charge of a department

-to report directly to the Managing Director

-to make presentations

-to be accountable for directing, administering and co-ordinating

company operations and financial growth

-to have various personnel working under

-to have a team of some people - the low level management

. -to be in charge of day-to-day running of the department -to attend meetings -to negotiate deals

-to do most of administration

-to answer the phone calls

-to look after the office - other personnel

-to meet the visitors

-to settle the problems of the shareholders/customers

-to show visitors around

EXAMPLES

1.

- Welcome to Paris. I'm Michel Truedo, the Managing Director of the Ceutique Corporation, so I'm on the top and responsible for the overall performance of the group.

2.

-Good afternoon! Let me introduce myself. I'm Lisa Brandt. I work in the Customer Services Section of Atlanta Power in the USA. It's my job to answer questions from our customers and settle any problems they have.

3. -How do you do? My name's Anke Platz and I'm in charge of the Marketing Department here in Cooper Spain. Let me introduce you to two of my staff- this is Bob White, and this is Ronald Cazals, they are our Marketing Executives.

ILLUSTRATIVE   DIALOGUES

1.   - Hello, Pete! Have you met Mr.Carter? Let me introduce you. Mr.Carter, this is Peter Harper, the Personnel Director of our company.

How do you do, Mr.Carter? What's your job?

How do you do, Mr.Harper. I represent Virgin Company. I'm responsible for our
subsidiaries. I am based in Norfolk but I am in permanent contact with our regional
offices and have to travel a lot.

- I understand.

  1.  - Good morning! I'm Martin Drew. I am here to meet the Managing Director.

Oh, yes! One moment, please.

Are you Martin Drew?

Yes.

I am Frank Coppel. Welcome to Three Stars Company!

Thank you!

- I am the Head of Sales here. I am in charge of the Sales Department.

Pleased to meet you.

The pleasure is mine actually.

3.   - Good morning!

Hello!

Have we met before?

-I don't think we've met. Who are you?

-I am Peter Brown from Consultancy Agency. And you? What's your job?

- Nice to meet you. And my name is Edna Snow. I am the head of Mitzuri PLC. I am
responsible for the overall performance of the group and control all aspects of Finance
 and Sales. And what exactly do you do?

- I am the Customers Services Executive with the Peters&Blake Company. It's my job to meet our customers and settle any problems they have.

 EXERCISES

1.   Put the questions into the correct spaces to complete the conversation.

a) - What's your job?

  1.  - How do you do?
  2.  - Where are you from?
  3.  - Have we met before?
  4.  - When did you start?
  5.  - Do you work here full time?
  6.  

Mr.F.: - Hello! ______________________________? My name's John Ferry.

Ms.B.: - ___________________? Pleased to meet you. I'm Julia Bell._____________?

Mr.F.: -I represent PowersProup. I'm the Marketing Assistant __________________?

Ms.B.: - I work in the office. Г т a P.

Mr.F.: - ?

Ms.B.: -Yes, I do.

Mr.F.:  ___________________________- ?

Ms.B.: - Three years ago, after graduating from college.

2.   Match the phrases in the column A with those in the column В

A

1. Linda Dann. How do you do?

2. It was fine, thanks. No delays.

 В

  1.  Not at all. I am here to take you to your
    hotel. You'll be staying at the Grand
    Hotel.
  2.  No. It only takes about some twentyminutes.
  3.  Hello! I'm Peret Berger from ABB.
    How do you do?

3. Is the hotel far?

4. Thank you for coming to meet me.

  1.   How was the flight?

3. Complete this conversation. Invent your own questions and answers this time.

Mr. Farrow: - ___________________________. My name is David Farrow.

Mr. Schultz: - ________________________? I am Heinrich Schultz.

Mr. Farrow: - How do you do, Mr. Schultz. ________________________.

Mr. Schultz: - Me too. ___________________,  Mr. Farrow?  

Mr. Farrow: - I represent Samanta Company. _______________________?

Mr. Schultz: - I am from Mercedes Benz. I work in sales. I have a team of twelve people. ___________________________________?

Mr. Farrow:   - I am a Sales Manager too.

Part  3. Jobs and Responsibilities

Speech Practice

Making contact

 A.  Here are two conversations where people are meeting one. Put them in the correct order.

a. Good. I've come to take you to your hotel. You'll be staying at the Hilton.

b.  Just a couple of days. I have to get back as soon as the conference is over.

с. Karl Striebl. How do you do? Thank you for coming to meet me.

d. Thank you very much. Is it far?

e. Fine thanks. How long are you here for?

f. It's a pleasure. Did you have a good fligt?

g. She's the new head of European Sales, isn't she?

h. Hello Josef. How are you?

i. No. It only takes about half an hour.

j. Hello. I'm Mark Jensen from Ciba Geigy. How do you do?

k That's a shame. By the way, there's someone I'd like you to meet. Caroline Eustace.

l. Hi there. Sarah. Nice to see you again,

m. Yes, it was fine thanks. No delays.

n. That's right. Come on over and I'll introduce you.


Conversation 1

Mark J

Karl

Mark

Karl

Mark____________

Karl

Mark____________

Conversation 2

Josef _____l______

Sarah___________

Josef___________

Sarah___________

Josef___________

Sarah___________

Josef___________

 

В.  Which conversation is more formal?

A first meeting

A.   Peter Berger is a consultant with Prodata, a computer consultancy firm. He is normally based in Geneva but he's working in Bradford at the moment, setting up a new quality control system. On his first day there, he meets Jenny Carlson over lunch.

Put these questions into the correct spaces to complete their conversation.

A. And what exactly are you doing?

В. What's your job?

С. Anyway, how long do you think you'll stay in Bradford?

D. I don't think we've met, have we?

E. When did you start?

F. So you're not from Bradford then?

G. And how long have you worked here?

Jenny   Hello. I'm Jenny Carlson. (1) / don't think we've met, have we?

Peter   No. Pleased to meet you. I'm Peter Berger from Prodata.

Jenny   (2) _____________________________

Peter No, I'm from Geneva. I'm just working here temporarily.

Jenny   Really? (3) _________________________________

Peter     This morning. Today is my first day.

Jenny     (4) _______________________________

Peter     I'm setting up a new quality control programme.

Jenny    That's interesting.

Peter     What about you?(5) _____________________________

Jenny    I work in Sales.

Peter     (6) ___________________________________________

Jenny    For eight years. I started as a sales representative and now I'm a regional manager. (7) _____________________________

Peter     Just 3 or 4 months .It depends how long the new system takes to set up.

Jenny    I see. Well. I'm sure you'll enjoy it. It's a very friendly place.

В.  Now imagine Peter is visiting your company. What will you say when you meet Him? Complete this conversation. Invent your own questions & answers this time.

Peter      Hello. I'm Peter Berger from Prodata.

You        ____________________________

Peter     It's nice to meet you. Do you work here full time?

You       ____________________________

Peter     I'm just here temporarily.

You       ____________________________

Peter     Just a couple of weeks. I'm installing a new computer system. What about you? What exactly do you do?

You       ____________________________

Peter     That's interesting. And how long have you had this job?

You      _____________________________

Peter     And what did you do before?

You      _____________________________

Peter     I see. Well. I must dash. I've got a lot to do. It's been nice meeting you.

You       ____________________________


PART 4.  
Business structure 

Complete the organization chart from the information provided. Two
examples have been done for you. (Note that there are various ways of
constructing an organization chart. This is one of the most usual.)

The Managing Director (sometimes called the Chief Executive, or President
in the USA) is the head of the company.

The company is run by a Board of Directors; each Director is in charge of a
department. However, the Chairman of the Board is in overall control and may
not be the head of any  one department.

Most companies have Finance, Sales, Marketing (sometimes part of Sales),
Production, Research and Development (R & D) and Personnel Departments.
These are the most common departments, but some companies have others as
well.

Most departments have a Manager, who is in charge of its day-to-day
running, and who reports to the Director; the Director is responsible for
strategic planning and for making decisions.

Various personnel in each department report to the Manager. One example,
present in almost all companies, is the Sales Representative, who reports to
the Sales Manager.


ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

           The Organizational Structure of the company depends on different matters, suchas: size of the company, type of ownership, availability of regional divisions,etc. But most of the companies have certain usual functions  shown on the Organizational Chart. Job Descriptions are attached below.

   BOARD OF DIRECTORS is the highest level in the organizational structure
of any corporation. In other types of ownership there won't be one (for
example, partnership). Usually from five to ten owners with the largest
number of shares get elected to the Board of Directors.

   MANAGING DIRECTOR is appointed by the Board of Directors for a certain period of time. He is responsible for managing the company, fulfilling the main strategy and developing business. He reports to the Board of Directors and shareholders.

   FINANCIAL CONTROLLER is responsible for Finance and Accounting
Function. This function is dealing with all aspects of reporting to authorities, shareholders and management of the company. They have to provide them with accurate and transparent financial and management reports in a timely manner. Managers use financial data for decision making purposes. Budget group develops plans and budgets.

   PERSONNEL MANAGER is the Head of the Personnel Department. The Personnel Department is dealing with issues of personnel training, hiring policies, defining reward systems for people from different departments and divisions.

  MANUFACTURING MANAGER is responsible for managing production,    quality control and research and development. Heads of workshops usually report to him. Information regarding new  market trends comes from the Marketing Department to the Research and Development Division where they improve existing products or develop new ones.

        Quality Control Division is dealing not only with quality of products but
also with quality of business processes. So they check both quality of products
and business processes.

•     SALES AND MARKETING MANAGER is always a very hard and artistic job to do but I think that it gives you more satisfaction that any other works within the company. Sales and Marketing Department is responsible for sales of products, promotion and advertising, market research, developing product
and market strategies, concluding contracts with clients and many other things  (from the way packaging should look to organization of presentations and shows).

•    PURCHASING MANAGER is working closely with Manufacturing Function because the Purchasing Department is responsible for purchasing materials, low value items and all the assets for Production. They have to find the best  quality materials at the lowest price.

Company
Structures

READING       Look at the organization chart for Cooper France. Where should the following labels appear?

general manager sales manager       sales representative

sales secretary agent

Now read the passage and complete the chart to show the positions that Jean Lamadon and his
colleagues occupy.

    My name's Jean Lamadon, and I'm one of the two sales manager here at Cooper France.
Cooper is an international group based in America which, among other things, produces tools
and equipment for the professional and consumer markets. The group has subsidiaries in several
European countries.

suppose that if I'm going to describe how things are organised here in France I'd better start
at the top! That's where you'll find Alain Madrange who is everybody's boss here! He controls
all aspects of finance and is in permanent contact with our head office. Both myself and Michel
Carnelez, who is the other sales manager, report directly to him.

As I said, there are two sales managers, because we sell two very different categories of product in
France. The first is electrical equipment which is used for assembling components for printed circuit
boards. That's my area. The other is what we call 'tools and hardware' which includes a lot of quite
different products, mostly sold in Do-It-Yourself shops all over the country. Michel Carnelez is in
charge of that, and he doesn't have any Cooper employees working under him apart from Sylvie
Cieutat,  his sales secretary. That means he relies entirely on a national network of ten sales agents
including his Paris agent Daniel Royatte. Michel spends much more time, than I do, marketing and
promoting his products.

The way my department is organized is really quite simple. About 80% of our business is done
through distributors and the rest is direct to major account holders, who are our really big cus-
tomers. As we sell all over the country this means I need a team of sales people. At the moment
there are four, each responsible for one territory: Cyril Jehanne for the north, Jean-Noel Echave for
the south, Daniel Lorand for the west and Patrick Amat for the east. I  also have a customer
services assistant, Jocylene Cuisy, and a sales secretary, Marie-Christine Chaussadas.
Together they run the sales office and look after most of the administration.

VOCABULARY Ex.1 Circle the word that does not belong in each horizontal group.

  1.  business company society subsidiary
  2.  salary manager salesman employee
  3.  finance product research marketing
  4.  distributing selling assembling promoting
  5.  components tools hardware strategy
  6.  end user customer client distributor

Ex.2    Which of the groups of three words that you identified above refer to the following definitions?
a   people who buy goods or services  

b types of commercial organizations  

с different departments or functions  

d people who work inside a company  

e activities that involve meeting customers

f products that can be sold  

Ex.3 Match each of the words that you circled with the following:

  1.   a monthly payment in exchange for work
  2.   an item that has been made
  3.   a plan of action
  4.   a non-profit-making organization
  5.   putting parts together
  6.   a person or business which has an agreement to sell the goods of another firm

 

PART 5.  Developing Skills

VIDEO Laboratory Work   "COMPANY STRUCTURES AND BUSINESS PROFILE"

NAMES OF THE STAFF :

Jenny Ross

Derek Jones

Don Bradley

Clive Harris

Edward Green

Geraldine Scott

Kate Mckenna

Bob and Pete

Sally

Task 1. Show how many different job titles you can name

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Task
2. Write down responsibilities of the following staff:

  1.  The head of the company

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1.  The Director / Manager of the department

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1.  The Customer Services Assistant

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. The Sales Representative

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Task 3. Watch the VIDEO and give the answers to the questions

a) Who arrives first?    

second? _____________________________________

third? ______________________________________

  1.  What day of the week is it? _________________________
  2.  What time of the day is it? __________________________
  3.  Who does Edward Green want to see? _________________________
  4.  Who does he meet first? _________________________

f) Where is she showing him to? _________________________

g) Name what you have seen there _________________________

Task 4. Give as full information about the company as possible

  •  The official name of the company is
  •  Its business profile is
  •  The Product is
  •  It is based in __________________________________
  •  _________________________ is everybody's Boss here.

Task 5. Watch the VIDEO once again and fill in the gaps

GREET A COLLEAGUE


Clive:

Jenny:

Greets Jenny.

Makes small talk:

1. ____________ ____________ ___________________

Makes small talk:

 

2. __________ _______________  ____________________________

Jenny:

Greets Kate:

Kate:

Greets Jenny: 3. ______  _______,  Jenny.

Responds: 5. _______ ______ _________ _________________

Asks a polite question:

 4. ____________ ________ ________

INTRODUCE YOURSELF

Edward:

Geraldine:

Greets Geraldine and introduces himself:

Good Morning.

1. ____________ ___________Edward Green.

Gives Don's Name:

2. to see Don Bradley

Asks him to wait:

Ah yes. One moment, please.

Jenny:

Edward:

Checks:

Are you Edward Green?

Responds: Yes.

Introduces herself:

3.________ __________Jenny Ross.

Asks a polite question:

4. ______ _________ _______ ___________.

Responds: Hello.

Welсотes Edward:

5. _________ ________ __________

6. ________ __     __________Bibury Systems.

Responds: Thank you.

Gives fob title:

7. ___________ ________ _________ ________ ___________ in the marketing department.

INTRODUCE A NEW COLLEAGUE

Jenny gives Edward's name:  

  1.  Kate, _________ _____________

Edward Green.

Greets Edward:

Ah yes. Edward. Hello.

Gives Edward job title:

2. ______________ our new ____________ _________________.

Welcomes       Edward:

3. _________ _________ Bibury Systems

marketing department.

Task 6. Match the names of the Bibury Systems staff with the jobs in the chart:

THE BOARD

Managing Director or Chief Executive

Sales and Marketing Director          Financial Director                 Personnel Director


Part 6.  Grammar Section

  1.  Expressing Present

UNIT 1  Present continuous (I am doing)

a) Study this example situation:

We use the present continuous when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking:

Please don't make so much noise. I'm studying (not 'I study')

'Where is Margaret?' 'She's having a bath.' (not 'she has')

Let's go out now. It isn't raining any more.

(at a party) Hello, Ann. Are you enjoying the party? (not 'do you enjoy')

b) We also use the present continuous when we talk about something which is happening around, the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking.. Study this example situation:

-Tom and Ann are talking and drinking in a cafe. Tom says: 'I'm reading an interesting book at the moment. I'll lend it to you when I've finished it.'

Tom is not reading the book at the time of speaking. He means that he has begun the book and hasn't finished it yet. He is in the middle of reading it. Here are some more examples:

- Silvia is learning English at the moment. (not 'learns')

- Have you heard about Tom? He is building his own house. (not 'builds')

But perhaps Silvia and Tom are not doing these things exactly at the time of speaking.

c) We often use the present continuous when we talk about a period around the present. For example: today, this season etc.:

- 'You're working hard today.' 'Yes, I have a lot to do.'

- Tom isn't playing football this season. He wants to concentrate on his studies.

d) We use the present continuous when we talk about changing situations:

- The population of the world is rising very fast. (not 'rises')

- Is your English getting better? (not 'does ... get')

  Exercises

1.1 In this exercise you have to put the verb into the correct form.

Examples: Please don't  make so much noise. I      am  studying      (study).

Let's go out now. It     isn’t  raining     (not/rain) any more.

Listen to those people. What language  are   they   speaking.   (they/speak)?

  1.   Please be quiet. I ………………… (try) to concentrate.
  2.   Look! It ……………………… (snow).
  3.   Why …………………… (you/look) at me like that? Have I said something wrong?
  4.   You ……………………. (make) a lot of noise. Can you be a bit quieter?
  5.   Excuse me, I …………………….. (look) for a phone box. Is there one near here?
  6.   (in the cinema) It's a good film, isn't it? ……………………… (you/enjoy) it?

7. Listen! Can you hear those people next door? They ……………………. (shout) at each other again.

  1.   Why …………………… (you/wear) your coat today? It's very warm.
  2.   I ………………………... (not/work) this week. I'm on holiday.

10. I want to lose weight. I ……………………... (not/eat) anything today.

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1.2 Complete these sentences using one of these verbs:

get        become       change       rise       improve        fall       increase

You don't have to use all  the verbs and you can use some of them more than once.

Example: The population of the world         is  rising        very fast.

  1.   The number of people without jobs ………...…….. at the moment.
  2.   He is still ill but he ………………………... better slowly.

3. These days food ………………………… more and more expensive.

  1.   The world ………………… .  Things never stay the same.
  2.   The cost of living ………………... .  Every year things are dearer.

6. George has gone to work in Spain. When he arrived, his Spanish wasn't very good but now it ………………………… .

7. The economic situation is already very bad and it …………………….. worse.

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Read this conversation between Brian and Steve. Put each verb into the correct form.

The first one has already been done for you.

Brian and Steve meet in a restaurant:

Brian:    Hello, Steve. I haven't seen you for ages. What (1) are  you  doing  (you/do)

these days?

Steve:    I (2) ……………………. (train) to be a shop manager.

Brian:    Really? (3) ………………… (you/enjoy) it?

Steve:    Yes, it's quite interesting. How about you?

Brian:    Well, I (4) …………………… (not/work) at the moment, but I'm very busy.

I (5) ………………….. (build) a house.

Steve:   Really? (6) …………………………………….. (you/do) it alone)?

Brian:    No, some friends of mine (7) ……………………………... (help) me.


UNIT 2  
Present simple (I do)

a) Study this example situation.

Alex is a bus driver. But now he is asleep in bed.

So:

He is not driving a bus (he is asleep)

But: He drives a bus.

This is the present simple tense:

I / we / you / they      drive

he / she / (it)              drives

We use the present simple to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about the present. We use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general. It is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking:

 The earth goes round the sun.

 Nurses look after patients in hospitals.

- In Britain most of the shops close at 5.30 p.m.

Remember that we say he / she / it -s. Don't forget the s:

 I work in a bank. Barry works in a shop.

  1.  We use do / does to make questions and negative sentences:

do    I / we / you / they

does    he / she / it

I / we / you / they    don't

he / she / it    doesn't

- Excuse me, do you speak English?

'Would you like a cigarette?' 'No, thanks. I don't smoke.'

What does this word mean? (not 'What means this word?')

Rice doesn't grow in Britain.

c) We use the present simple when we say how often we do things:

-I get up at 8 o'clock every morning. (not 'am getting')

How often do you go to the dentist?

Ann doesn't often drink tea.

In summer Tom usually plays tennis twice a week.

d) Note that we say 'Where do you come from?' (= Where are you from?):

Where do you come from? (not 'Where are you coming from?')

He comes from Japan (not 'He is coming from Japan.')

e) When you make a suggestion, you can say Why don't you ... ?:

- 'I'm tired.’ 'Why don't you go to bed early?'


Exercises

2.1 In this exercise you have to put the verb into the correct form.

Examples: Water    boils     (boil) at 100 degrees centigrade.

George    doesn’t  go     (not/go) to the cinema very often.

How many languages    do  you  speak    (you/speak)?

1. The swimming bath …………………. (open) at 9.00 and ………………… (close)

at 18.30 every day.

2. What time ………………………… (the banks/close) in Britain?

3. I have a car but I ……………………… (not/use) it very often.

  1.   How many cigarettes ………………………… (you/smoke) a day?
  2.   'What …………………........... (you/do)?' 'I'm an electrical engineer.'
  3.   'Where ………………………... (your father/come) from?' 'He ……………………

(come) from Scotland.'

7. If you need money, why ……………………………... (you / not / get) a job?

8. I ……………………… (play) the piano, but I …………………. (not/play) very well.

9. I don't understand the word 'deceive'. What …………………… ('deceive' / mean)?

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2.2 This time you have to read some sentences and correct them. The English is correct but the information is wrong. Write two correct sentences each time.

Example:  The sun goes round the earth.    The  sun  doesn’t  go  round  the  earth. 

The  earth  goes  round  the  sun.  

1. The sun rises in the west. …………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1.   Mice catch cats. …………………………………………………………………………………………...…..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1.   Carpenters make things from metal. …………………………………………………………...….....

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1.   The River Amazon flows into the Pacific Ocean. ………………………………….…………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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2.3 Now you have to use these sentences to make questions. Begin your question with the word(s) in brackets.

Examples: Tom plays tennis. (How often?)     How  often  does  Tom  play  tennis? 

I get up in the morning. (What time/usually?) What  time  do  you  usually  get  up?

1. Ann watches television. (How often?) How often ………………………….…………………………

2. I write to my parents. (How often?) ……………………………………………………………………...….

3. I have dinner in the evening? (What time /usually?) …………………………………………………

4. Tom works. (Where?) …………………………………………………………………………………………..…

5. I go to the cinema. (How often?) ……………………………………………………………………………..

  1.   People do stupid things. (Why?) ………………………………………………………………………….…..
  2.   The car breaks down. (How often?) ……………………………………………………………………..…..

UNIT 3  Present continuous (I am doing) or present simple (I do)?

a) Study this explanation and compare the examples:

Present continuous (I am doing)

Use the present continuous to talk about something which is happening at or around the time of speaking:

Present simple (I do)

Use the present simple to talk about things in general or things which happen repeatedly:

past                      now                       future

past                      now                       future

The kettle  is  boiling. Can you turn it off, please?

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

Listen to those people. What language are they speaking?

Excuse me, do you speak English?

'Where's Tom? '   'He's playing tennis.'

(you find a stranger in your room) What are you doing here?

Tom plays tennis every Saturday.

What do you usually do at weekends?

What do you do? (= What's your job?)

Silvia is in Britain for three months. She's  learning English.

Most people learn to swim when they are children.

Use the present continuous for a temporary situation:

Use the present simple for a
permanent situation:

I'm living with some friends until I can find a flat.

My parents live in London. They have been there for 20 years.

That machine isn't working. It broke down this morning.

That machine doesn't work. It hasn't worked for years.

b)  Some verbs are used only in simple tenses. For example, you cannot say 'I am knowing'.

You can only say I know. Here is a list of verbs which are not normally used in continuous tenses (but there are exceptions):

want like belong know suppose remember

need love see realise mean forget

prefer hate hear believe understand    seem

have (when the meaning is 'possess')

think (when the meaning is 'believe')

- Do you like London? (no t 'are you liking')

- He doesn't  understand. (not  'he isn't  understanding')

- These shoes belong to me. (not  ‘are  belonging')

- What do you think Tom will do? (=What do you believe he will do?)

but:  What are you thinking about? (= What is going on in your mind?)


Exercises

3.1 Answer the questions about the pictures.

1. Does he take photographs ?  - Yes, he does. Is he taking a photograph?

No, he doesn’t

What is he doing?    He is having a shower.

2. Does she drive a bus?         Is she driving a bus?     

What is she doing?     

3. Does he clean windows?         Is he cleaning a window?     

What is he doing?       

4. Do they teach?         Are they teaching?     

What are they doing?      

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.2  Put in am/is/are/do/don’t/does/doesn't.

1. Excuse me, do ... you speak English?

2. 'Have a cigarette.'    'No, thank you, I  smoke.'

3. Why you laughing at me?

4. 'What she do?'    'She's a dentist.'

5. I want to go out. It ……….. raining.

6. 'Where you come from?'    'From Canada.'

7. How much it cost to send a letter to Canada?

8. I can't talk to you at the moment. I .. working.

9. George is a good tennis player but heplay very often.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.3 Put the verb in the present continuous (I am doing) or present simple (I do).

1. Excuse me, Do you speak (you/speak) English?

2. Tom (have) a shower at the moment.

3. They (not/watch) television very often,

4. Listen! Somebody (sing).

5. She's tired. She (want) to go home now.

6. How often (you/read) a newspaper?

7. 'Excuse me, but you (sit) in my place.'    'Oh, I'm sorry.'

8. I'm sorry, I (not/understand). Please speak more slowly.

9. 'Where are you, Roy?'    'I'm in the sitting-room. I …………. (read).'

10. What time …..; ……………. (she/finish) work every day?

11. You can turn off the radio. I ……………….. (not/listen) to it.

12. He ………………………………………………   (not/usually/drive) to work.

He usually (walk).

B.  Expressing Past and Present

UNIT 4  Past simple (I did)

a) Study this example:

Tom: Look! It's raining again.

Ann: Oh no, not again. It rained all day yesterday too.

Rained is the past simple tense. We use the past simple to talk about actions or situations in the past. 

- I very much enjoyed the party.

- Mr. Edwards died ten years ago.

- When I lived in Manchester, I worked in a bank.

b) Very often the past simple ends in - ed:

- We invited them to our party but they decided not to come.

- The police stopped me on my way home last night.

- She passed her examination because she studied very hard.

But many important verbs are  irregular.  This means that the past simple does  not  end in -ed. 

For example:

leave —>  left              We all left the party at 11 o'clock.

go     —>  went           Yesterday I went to London to see a friend of mine.

cost   —>  cost              This house cost £35,000 in 1980.

The past of the verb be (am/is/are) is was/were:

I / he / she / it  was        we/you/they were

I was angry because       Tom and Ann were late. 

c)  In past simple questions and negatives we use did/didn't + the infinitive
(
do/open/rain etc.):

it rained       did it rain?        it didn't rain 

-  Ann: Did you go out last night, Tom?

  Tom: Yes, I went to the cinema. But I didn't enjoy the film.

-  When did Mr Edwards die?

-  What did you do at the week-end?

-  We didn't invite her to the party, so she didn't come.

-  Why didn't you phone me on Tuesday?

Note that we normally use did/didn't with have:

-  Did you have time to write the letter?

-  I didn't have enough money to buy anything to eat.

But we do not use did with the verb be (was/were):

-  Why were you so angry?

-  They weren't able to come because they were very busy.

-  Was Tom at work yesterday?

  Exercises

4.1 In this exercise you have to read a sentence about the present and then write a sentence about the past.

Example: Tom usually gets up at 7.30. Yesterday    he got  up  at  7.30.

  1.  Tom usually wakes up early. Yesterday morning …………………………………..
  2.  Torn usually walks to work. Yesterday ……………………………………………..
  3.  Tom is usually late for work. Yesterday …………………………………………….
  4.  Tom usually has a sandwich for lunch. Yesterday …………………………………..
  5.  Tom usually goes out in the evening. Yesterday evening …………………………...
  6.  Tom usually sleeps very well. Last night ……………………………………………

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.2 This time you have to put one of these verbs in each sentence:

hurt     teach     spend     sell     throw     fall     catch     buy     cost

Example: I was hungry, so I    bought      something to eat in the shop.

Tom's father ……………... him how to drive when he was 17.

Don ………...……. down the stairs this morning and ……………… his leg.

We needed some money so we ……….… our car.

Ann …………….….. a lot of money yesterday. She …………………. a dress which …………………………..……. £50.

Jim …………….…… the ball to Sue who ……………………..…. it.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.3 In this exercise you have to write questions. A friend has just come back from holiday and you are asking him about it.

Examples: where /go?        Where did you go?                                                                                                                          .

food / good?     Was the food good?                                                                                                                      .

  1.  how long / stay there? ………………………………………………………….………
  2.  stay in a hotel? ……………………………………………………………..…………..
  3.  go alone? ……………………………………………………………..………………...
  4.  how / travel? ……………………………………………………………..……………..
  5.  the weather/fine? …………………………………………………………….………....
  6.  what / do in the evenings? ……………………………………………………………...
  7.  meet any interesting people? …………………………………………………………...

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.4 This time you have to put the verb into the correct form. All the sentences are past.

Example: I     didn’t  go      (not/go) to work yesterday because I    wasn’t     (not/be) very well.

  1.  Tom ………………. (not/shave) this morning because he ………….. (not/have) time.
  2.  We …………………. (not/eat) anything because we ………………. (not/be) hungry.
  3.  I …………………. (not/rush) because I ……………. (not/be) in a hurry.
  4.  She ……………… (not/be) interested in the book because she ……………………….. (not/understand) it.


UNIT 5  
Past continuous (I was doing)

a) Study this example situation:

Yesterday Tom and Jim played tennis. They began at 10 o'clock and finished at 11 o'clock.

What were they doing at 10.30?

They were playing tennis (at 10.30).

'They were playing' means that they were in the middle of playing tennis. They had started playing but they hadn't finished.

This is the past continuous tense:

I / he / she             was

we / they / you      were

We use the past continuous to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but hadn't finished:

- This time last year I was living in Brazil.

- What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night?

b) The past continuous does not tell us whether an action was finished or not. Perhaps it was finished, perhaps not. Compare:

Tom was cooking the dinner. (past continuous ) = He was in the middle of cooking the dinner and we don't know whether he finished cooking it.

Tom cooked the dinner, (past simple) = He began and finished it.

c) We often use the past continuous (I was doing) and the past simple (I did) together to say that something happened in the middle of something else:

- Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.

I saw Jim in the park. He was sitting on the grass and reading a book.

It was raining when I got up.

While I was working in the garden, I hurt my back..

But to say that one thing happened after another, use the past simple:

- Yesterday evening Tom was having a bath when the phone rang. He got out of the bath and answered the phone.

Compare:

When Tom arrived, we were having dinner. (past continuous)  =   We had already started dinner before Tom arrived.

When Tom arrived, we had dinner. (past simple) = Tom arrived and then we had dinner.

Note: There are some verbs (for example know) which are not normally used in continuous tenses.


Exercises

5.1 Here is a list of some things that Ann did yesterday (and the times at which she did them):

1.    8.45-9.15     had breakfast

4.  12.45-1.30   had lunch

2.    9.15-10.00   read the newspaper

5.    2.30-3.30   washed some clothes

3.  10.00-12.00   cleaned her flat

6.    4.00-6.00   watched television

Now write sentences saying what she was doing at these times:

1.  At 9 o'clock  she  was  having  breakfast..

4.  At 1 o'clock ………………………

2.  At 9.30 she ………………………...

5.  At 3 o'clock ………………………

3.  At 11 o'clock ……………………....

6.  At 5 o'clock ………………………

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.2 A group of people were staying in a hotel. One evening the fire alarm rang. Use the words in brackets to make sentences saying what each person was doing at the time. Example: (Don / have / a bath).  Don  was  having  a  bath  

  1.  (Ann / write / a letter in her room)  Ann ………………………………………….
  2.  (George / get / ready to go out)  George ………………………………………….
  3.  (Carol and Dennis / have / dinner)  Carol and Dennis ………..…………………..
  4.  (Tom / make / a phone call)   Tom ………………………………………………..

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.3 Make sentences from the words in brackets. Put the verbs into the correct form, past simple (I did) or past continuous (I was doing).

Example: (I/fall/asleep when I/watch /television) I  fell  asleep  when  I  was  watching  television.

  1.  (the phone / ring / when I / have / a shower)  The phone …………………………......
  2.  (it / begin / to rain when I / walk / home) …………………………………………..…
  3.  (we / see / an accident when we / wait / for the bus) ……………...………………..…

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.4 Put the verb into the correct form, past continuous or past simple.

Example: While Tom   was   cooking   (cook) the dinner, the phone    rang     (ring).

  1.  George …………… (fall) off the ladder while he,………… (paint) the ceiling.
  2.  Last night I ………….. (read) in bed when suddenly I ………… (hear) a scream.
  3.   ……………. (you/watch) television when I phoned you?
  4.  Ann ………….. (wait) for me when I ………….. (arrive).
  5.  I ……………… (not/drive) very fast when the accident ……………… (happen).
  6.  I ……………… (break) a plate last night. I …………..….. (do) the washing-up when it ……………………………………… (slip) out of my hand.
  7.  Tom ……………. (take) a photograph of me while I ………………… (not/look).
  8.  We ……………… (not/go) out because it …………….. (rain).
  9.  What ………………. (you/do) at this time yesterday?


UNIT 6  
Present perfect (I have done)

a) Study this example situation:

Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.

He has lost his key.

'He has lost his key' means that he lost it a short time ago and he still hasn't got it.

This is the present perfect (simple) tense:

I/we/they/you   have   (= I've etc.)

           he/she   has     (= he's etc.)

I (etc.)   haven't                  have    you (etc.)

he/she    hasn't                    has      he/she

We form the present perfect with have/has + the past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed  (opened, decided) but many important verbs are irregular (lost, written, done etc.).

b) When we use the present perfect there is a connection with the present:

I've lost my key. (= I haven't got it now.)

Jim has gone to Canada. (= He is in Canada or on his way there now.)

Oh dear, I've forgotten her name. (= I can't remember it now.)

Have you washed your hair? (= is it clean now?)

c) We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:

I've lost my key. Can you help me look for it?

Do you know about Jim? He's gone to Canada.

Ow! I've burnt myself.

You can use the present perfect with just (= a short time ago):

'Would you like something to eat?'        'No, thanks. I've just had lunch.'

Hello, have you just arrived?

You can use the present perfect with already to say that something has happened sooner than expected:

'Don't forget to post the letter, will you?'     'I've already posted it.'

'When is Tom going to start his new job?'   'He has already started.'

d) Study the difference between gone to and been to :

Ann is on holiday. She has gone to Italy. (= She is there now or she is on  her way there.)

Tom is back in England now. He has been to Italy. (= He was there but now he has come back.)


Exercises

6.1 You are writing a letter to a friend and giving news about people you both know. Use the words given to make sentences and put the verb into the correct form.

Example: Phil / find a new job    Phil   has  found  a  new  job.                                                                                             .

Dear Chris,

Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.

  1.  Charles / go / Brazil   Charles ………………………………………………………….
  2.  Jack and Jill / decide / to get married …………………………………………………..
  3.  Suzanne / have / a baby ………………………………………………………………...
  4.  Monica / give up / smoking …………………………………………………………….
  5.  George / pass / his driving-test …………………………………………………………

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.2  In this exercise you have to read the situation and then write a suitable sentence. Use the verb given.

Example: Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. (lose) He  has  lost  his  key.                         .

  1.  Ann's hair was dirty. Now it is clean. (wash) She ……..……………………………..
  2.  Tom was 80 kilograms. Now he weighs 70. (lose weight) …...……………………...
  3.  The car has just stopped because there isn't any more petrol in the tank. (run out of petrol) ……………………………………………………………………………….……
  4.  Yesterday Bill was playing football. Now he can't walk and his leg is in plaster. (break) …………….……………………………………………………………………...

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.3  This time you have to use just. Answer the questions using the words given.

Example: Would you like something to eat. (no thank you / I / just / have / dinner)

No  thank  you.  I’ve  just  had  dinner.                                                                                                                                   .

  1.  Have you seen John anywhere? (yes / I /just / see / him) Yes …………………………
  2.  Has Ann phoned yet? (yes / she / just / phone) ………………………………………...
  3.  Would you like a cigarette? (no thanks / I / just / put / one out) ……………………….

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.4 In this exercise you have to write sentences with already.

Example: Don't forget to post that letter.  'I’ve  already  posted  it.                                                                        .

1. Don't forget to phone Tom.                   I …………………….…………………….…

2. Why don't you read the paper?              ………………...…………………………….

3. Shall I pay the waiter?                           No, I ……………..………………………….

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.5 This time you have to put in been or gone.

Example: 'Where's Ann?'   'She's on holiday. She has     gone      to Italy. '

1. Hello! I've just ……………………. to the shops. Look! I've bought lots of things.

2. Jim isn't here at the moment. He's …………………………...... to the shops.

3. 'Are you going to the bank?' -  'No, I've already ………………………… to the bank.'


UNIT 7  Present perfect with how long and past

simple with when 

Since and for

a) Use the past simple (I did) to ask or say when something happened:

- A: When did it start raining?

B: It started raining at one o'clock / an hour ago.

- A: When did Tom and Ann first meet?

B: They first met when they were at school / a long time ago.

Use the present perfect (I have done / I have been doing) to ask or say how long something has been happening (up to the present):

- A: How long has it been raining?

B: It's been raining since one o'clock / for an hour.

-  A: How long have Tom and Ann known each other?

B: They've known each other since they were at school / for a long time.

b) Since and for

We use both since and for to say how long something has been  happening:

I've been waiting for you since 8 o'clock.

I've been waiting for you for two hours.

We use since when we say the beginning of the period (8 o'clock).

We use for when we say the period of time (two hours).

since

8 o'clock            1977

Monday             Christmas

12 May              lunchtime

April                  we arrived

for

two hours               a week

ten minutes            five years

three days              a long time

six months             ages

She's been working here since April. (= from April until now)

She's been working here for six months. (not 'since six months')

I haven't seen Tom since Monday. (= from Monday until now)

I haven't seen Tom for three days. (not 'since three days')

We do not use for in expressions with all (all day / all morning / all week / all my life etc.):

- I've lived here all my life. (not 'for all my life')


Exercises

7.1 In this exercise you have to write questions with how long and when. 

Example: It is raining. (how long /it / rain?)    How  long  has   it   been  raining?                                  .

(when / it / start / raining?)    When  did  it  start  raining?                                .

1. Ann is learning Italian.

(how long / she / learn / Italian?) ……………………………………………………

(when / she / begin / learning Italian?) ………………………………………………

2. I know Tom.

(how long / you / know / Tom?) …………………………………………………….

(when / you / first / meet / Tom?) …………………………………………………...

3. Bob and Alice are married.

(how long / they / be / married?) …………………………………………………….

(when / they / get / married?) ……………………………………….……………….

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.2 In this exercise you have to put in since or for.

Example: Tom and I have known each other      for      six months.

  1.  It's been raining ............................................... I got up this morning.
  2.  Tom's father has been a policeman ........................................ 20 years.
  3.  Have you been learning English ....................................... a long time?
  4.  ....................................... Christmas, the weather has been quite mild.
  5.  Ann has been on holiday ................................................... three days.
  6.  That's a very old car. I've had it .................................................. ages.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.3 This time you have to make a new sentence beginning in the way shown.

Examples: I know Tom. I first met him six months ago. I have known  him  for  six  months.

It's been raining since 2 o'clock. It started. raining   at  two  o’clock.                                   .

  1.  Tom's ill. He became ill three days ago. He has ………………...………………….
  2.  We have been married for five years. We got ………………………………………
  3.  Jim has a beard. He grew it ten years ago. He has ………………………………….
  4.  He has been in France for three weeks. He went …………………………………...
  5.  He has had his new car since February. He bought ………………………………....

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.4 In this exercise you have to imagine that two people are talking. You have to make sentences with   It's ... since ...

Example: A: Do you often go on holiday? (no / five years)

B: No,  it’s  five  years  since  I  went  on  holiday.                                                                                                 .

  1.  A: Do you often eat in restaurants? (no / six months)

B: No, it ……………………………………………………………………………

  1.  A: Does it often snow here? (no / years)
  2.  B:  No, ………..........................................................................................................


Exercises

Present and past

1   Put the verb into the correct form, present simple (I do), present continuous (I am doing), past simple (I did) or past continuous (I was doing).

1. We can go out now. It is not raining  (not/rain) any more.

2. Ann  was  waiting  (wait)  for me when I  arrived    (arrive).

3. I ………………. (get) hungry. Let's go and have something to eat.

4. What …………… (you do) in your spare time? Have you got any hobbies? …………

5. What speed ……………. (the car/do) at the time of the accident?

6. Mary usually ………… (phone) me on Fridays but she … (not phone) last Friday.

7. A: - When I last saw you, you ……………………….. (think) of moving to a new flat

В: - That's right, but in the end I (decide) to stay where I was.

8. What's  that noise? What ……….. (happen)?

9. It's usually dry here at this time of the year. It (not rain)  much.

10. ………………………………. Yesterday evening the phone (ring) three times while we ……………………………………… (have) dinner.

11. ………………………………... Linda was busy when we (go) to see her yesterday. She …………………………………..  (study) for an exam. We ………….. (not want) to disturb  her,  so we ……………… (not stay) very long.

12. ……………………………….. When I first ………………………. (tell) Tom the news, he ……………………………………………………………… (not believe) me. He ………………… (think) that I …………………….. (joke).

2   Choose the right alternative.

1. Everything is going well. We didn't have / haven't had any problems so far. (haven't had is right)

2. Margaret didn’t go/hasn’t gone to work yesterday. She wasn't feeling well.

3. Look! That man over there wears / is wearing the same sweater as you.

4. Your son is much taller than when I last saw him. He-grew./ has grown a lot.

5. I still don't know what to do. I didn't decide / haven't decided yet.

6. I wonder why Jim is / is being so nice to me today. He isn't usually like that.

7. Jane had a book open in front of her but she didn't read / wasn't reading it.

8. I wasn't very busy. I didn't have / wasn't having much to do.

9. Mary wasn't happy in her new job at first but she begins / is beginning to enjoy it now.

  1.  . After leaving school, Tim found / has found it very difficult to get a job.
  2.  . When Sue heard the news, she wasn't / hasn't been very pleased.
  3.  . This is a nice restaurant, isn't it? Is this the first time vou are / you've been here?
  4.  . I need a new job. I'm doing / I've been doing the same job for too long.
  5.  . 'Ann has gone out.'    'Oh, has she? What time did she go / has she gone?'
  6.  . 'You look tired.'    'Yes. I've played / ‘ve been playing  basketball.
  7.  . Where are you coming / do you come from? Are you American?
  8.  . I'd like to see Tina again. It's a long time since I saw her / that I didn't see her.
  9.  . Bob and Alice have been married since 20 years / for 20 years.

3   Complete the questions using a suitable verb.

1. A: I'm looking for Paul.    ...Have you seen  …him?

B: Yes, he was here a moment ago.

2. A: Why ...did you go …  to bed so early last night?

B: Because I was feeling very tired.

3. A: Where ?

B: Just to the post box. I want to post these letters. I'll be back in a few minutes.

4. A: ………………………. television every evening?

B: No, only if there's a good  program  on.

5. A: Your house is very beautiful. How long ………… here?

B: Nearly ten years.

6. A: How was your holiday?   ……………… /time?

B: Yes, thanks. It was great.

7. A: …………………….… Julie recently?

B: Yes, I met her a few days ago.

8. A: Can you describe the woman you saw? What …?

B: A red sweater and black jeans.

9. A: I'm sorry to keep you waiting ………………. long?

B: No, only about ten minutes.

A: How long ……..  you   ……. to work this morning?

B: Usually about 45 minutes. It depends on the traffic.

10. A: …………………….. with that newspaper yet?

В: No, I'm still reading it. I won't be long.

11. A: …………………. to the United States?

В: No, never, but I went to Canada a few years ago.


LANGUAGE INTRODUCING  PEOPLE :
 Present perfect and past simple

FOCUS

Read the short profile below of Dimmen Herwarden, a manager with a major American consumer Products company.

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name

Dimmen Herwarden

Nationality

Dutch

Age

39

Marital Status

Married Kate Taylor in 1995

No children

Civil Status

Permanent resident from 1995

Working visa 1993 – 1995

Student visa 1990 – 1992

Qualifications

MBA  Columbia University 1992

Dutch high school leaving certificate 1989

Employment

1997 to date: Tailor Corporation

1994-1996: ESPV Inc

1993-1994: Research Systems

Positions held

2007  to date :     General Manager

2002   -  2006      Brand Manager

1999  -   2001      Assistant Brand Manager

1997  -   1998      Brand assistant

Present perfect

With the present perfect we use   How long …?  for questions about duration and

for or since for the answer :

How long have you been a permanent resident?

I’ve been a permanent resident since 1995.

Past simple

With the past simple we use When …? and  How long …? To ask questions about the timing and duration of events in the past:

When did you come to the States?   (TIMING)

How long did you live in Holland?  (DURATION)

We can answer the first question by giving  the exact time in the past or by giving the total number of units of time that separate the event in from the present:

I came in 1990 / I came 18 years ago.

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